What causes lower abdominal pain in females?

What causes lower abdominal pain in females?

Lower abdominal pain in females can arise from various factors, some mild and others severe. Understanding the possible causes, symptoms, and treatments is essential to ensure proper care. 

This article will delve into different reasons behind lower abdominal pain, focusing on females, and explore potential diagnoses and treatments.

Table of Contents

Common Causes of Lower Central Abdominal Pain

Woman with lower abdominal pain

Gastrointestinal issues

Digestive problems are frequently the culprit behind lower central abdominal discomfort. In addition, constipation, diarrhea, and ulcers can lead to abdominal pain.


Menstrual pain, or dysmenorrhea, is prevalent among women. This is because the uterus contracts to shed its lining during menstruation, leading to cramping and discomfort in the lower abdomen. Additional symptoms can include nausea and diarrhea.

Urinary tract infection (UTI)

UTIs can result from bacteria or other substances infiltrating the urinary tract. Common symptoms include lower abdominal pain and a burning sensation during urination.

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection that impacts the uterus and fallopian tubes. Often associated with sexually transmitted diseases, it can also develop without an STI. Symptoms include pain during or after sex, abnormal vaginal bleeding, and lower abdominal pain.

Common Causes of Lower Left Abdominal Pain

Gas (flatulence)

Gas buildup in the intestines can cause lower left abdominal pain. In addition, intestinal distention occurs when gas presses on the left side of the abdomen, leading to discomfort.

Polyps or diverticular disease

Polyps, small growths on the colon's inner wall, and diverticular disease, in which small pouches called diverticula form in the large intestine's wall, are common causes of lower left abdominal pain. Both conditions can result in inflammation and discomfort.

Common Causes of Lower Right Abdominal Pain


Inflammation of the appendix, a small, worm-like structure projecting from the large intestine, results in appendicitis. 

The condition typically causes abdominal pain and swelling in the lower right side of the abdomen, along with nausea, vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea. If untreated, a ruptured appendix can lead to life-threatening complications.

Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory bowel condition that causes lower right abdominal pain. Its origins remain unknown, but genetic and environmental factors likely contribute. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are benign, fluid-filled tumors on or in the ovary. They can cause lower right abdominal pain when they grow large enough to press against other organs or twist the ovary, cutting off the blood supply. Ruptured cysts can release their contents into the abdomen, resulting in severe pain.

General Lower Abdominal Pain Causes

Various factors can cause lower abdominal pain in females, and as an expert in this field, I'd like to explain some of the common causes to you. 

Remember that the pain's severity and nature can vary significantly from one individual to another.

Cramp-like Pain

Cramp-like abdominal pain may be linked to constipation, diarrhea, gas, or bloating. In women, it could be related to miscarriage, menstruation, or issues in the reproductive organs. This pain is often temporary and can come and go.

Localized Pain

Localized abdominal pain is confined to one area of the abdomen and is usually caused by problems with a specific organ.

Colicky Pain

Colicky pain signals more severe conditions like kidney stones or gallstones. It feels like a painful muscle spasm and tends to occur suddenly.

Ovulation Pain

Some women may experience cramps 10-14 days before their period due to ovulation. This pain, called "mittelschmerz," is temporary and does not require treatment.

Menstrual Pain

Pelvic pain during menstruation is joint and can vary in intensity. It could be premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), or dysmenorrhea. Over-the-counter medications might help.

Ovarian Cysts

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs on the ovaries that are usually harmless and disappear independently. However, large or problematic cysts may require medical attention or even surgery.

Uterine Fibroids

Fibroids are non-cancerous tumors that develop in the uterus. They can cause pain and other symptoms, including infertility. Treatment depends on their size and location.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

PID is an infection or inflammation of the female reproductive organs, often resulting from sexually transmitted bacteria. Treatment typically involves antibiotics.


Endometriosis occurs when uterine tissue grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and bleeding. It can result in chronic pain and infertility. Early diagnosis is essential for managing symptoms.

Pregnancy Pain

Abdominal or pelvic pain during pregnancy is common, but any concerning pain should be discussed with a doctor.

Ectopic Pregnancy

An ectopic pregnancy is life-threatening in which a fertilized egg implants outside the womb. It can cause severe abdominal pain and requires immediate medical attention.

Pelvic-floor Muscle Dysfunction

Pelvic-floor dysfunction involves severe spasms in the muscles supporting the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum. Treatment may include medication, surgery, or exercises.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer causes vague abdominal pain and discomfort, often only detected in advanced stages. Therefore, early diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment, usually involving surgery and chemotherapy.

Diagnosing Lower Abdominal Pain

Here is a general approach to diagnosing the type of abdominal pain you might be experiencing:

  1. Monitor your symptoms: Keep track of when and where the pain occurs, the severity, duration, and any other associated symptoms. This information can help narrow down the potential causes of abdominal pain.
  2. Consult a healthcare professional: Discuss your symptoms with a healthcare professional, such as a primary care physician or gynecologist. They will perform a physical examination and ask questions about your medical history, lifestyle, and the specifics of the pain you're experiencing.
  3. Physical examination: Your healthcare provider will examine your abdomen, pressing on different areas to check for swelling, tenderness, or other abnormalities. This can help them determine the location and cause of the pain.
  4. Imaging tests: Your doctor may order X-rays, ultrasounds, or MRI scans to visualize your internal organs and structures. These tests can help identify inflammation, tumors, ruptures, or other issues causing your pain.
  5. Lab tests: Blood and urine tests may be ordered to check for signs of infection or other abnormalities related to your abdominal pain.
  6. Specialized tests: Depending on your symptoms and test results, your doctor may recommend additional tests. These could include vaginal swabs or cervical smears, pelvic ultrasounds, cystoscopy, pelvic laparoscopy, pelvic MRI, or colonoscopy. These tests can provide more detailed information about your reproductive, urinary, or digestive systems.

Your healthcare provider will use the information gathered from your symptoms, physical examination, and test results to determine the most likely cause of your abdominal pain. 

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

Treatment Options for Lower Abdominal Pain

The treatment for lower abdominal pain depends on the underlying cause. Some possible treatment options include:

Over-the-counter pain relievers

Over-the-counter medications like ibuprofen or acetaminophen may relieve mild pain associated with menstruation, muscle spasms, or gas.


If the pain is due to a bacterial infection, such as a UTI or PID, antibiotics can help treat and alleviate the pain.

Lifestyle changes

For gastrointestinal issues like constipation, diarrhea, or gas, changing your diet, staying hydrated, and engaging in regular physical activity can help manage symptoms and prevent future occurrences.


In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address the cause of the pain, such as removing an inflamed appendix or treating an ectopic pregnancy.

When to Seek Medical Attention

It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following symptoms along with lower abdominal pain:

  • Severe or persistent pain
  • Fever or chills
  • Vomiting or inability to keep fluids down
  • Signs of dehydration, such as dark urine or dizziness
  • Abnormal vaginal bleeding or discharge
  • Pain during urination
  • Unexplained weight loss

These symptoms may indicate a more severe issue that requires prompt medical care.


Lower abdominal pain in females can arise from various causes, ranging from mild discomfort to life-threatening conditions. 

Understanding the potential reasons behind the pain and recognizing when to seek medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment. 

If you're experiencing lower abdominal pain, don't hesitate to consult a healthcare professional to determine the best course of action for your specific situation.

DISCLAIMER: buildyourbody.org does not provide medical advice, examination, or diagnosis.

Medically reviewed and approved by Nataniel Josue M D.